Climate ChangeClimate change impacts have been identified as one of the greatest global threats to coral reef ecosystems. As temperature rise, mass bleaching, and infectious disease outbreaks are likely to become more frequent.

Coastal PollutionImpacts from land-based sources of pollution (e.g. agriculture, deforestation, storm water, impervious surfaces, coastal development, road construction, and oil and chemical spills) on coral reef ecosystems include increased sedimentation, nutrients, toxins, and pathogen introduction.

PAM FluorometryPulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry measures the photosynthetic efficiency within the endosymbiotic Symbiodinium spp. that may be used as a quantitative measure of photoinactivation during coral bleaching.

Fishing EffectsFishing impacts in coral reef areas, when ecologically unsustainable, can lead to the depletion of key functional groups of reef species in many locations, with cascading impacts on coral reef habitats and associated species and ecosystems.

What is Ocean Acidification?Over the past two centuries, humans have dramatically altered the composition of the earth’s atmosphere through deforestation and the burning of fossil fuel.